We Are Your Natural Solution Small Things but big intellectual ideas

Vision

Create a safe environment for food production, and women, and a sustainable future for the youth.

Mission

To contribute towards lowering Chemical residue in farm produce, water runoff and in the environment

Core values

We are dedicated to ultimate satisfaction of our client needs and we focus our abilities and actions to exceed expectations.
About us

We are modern & special for

Milkweed Biologicals (U) Ltd was founded in 2017 by Thomas Ayshford. A British Entomologist and Microbiologist, living in Uganda. Before coming to Uganda in 2015, Thomas was working with the Natural History Museum in London for four years in the department of Entomology.

Our company’s main aim is to lead the way in Uganda to facilitate and encourage the reduction of Chemical Pesticides in the Readmore

Organic

100%

Tested

100%

Trusted

100%
About us

Our many years of experience is
the main reason of sucess

Expert team

Completed projects

Cherished customers

Products
Products

Beneficial Fungi

Products
Products

Beneficial Bacteria

Beneficial Mites

IPM
IPM

INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT

IPM is an ecosystem-based strategy that focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage through a combination of techniques such as biological control, habitat manipulation, modification of cultural practices, and use of resistant varieties. IPM can be used to solve pest problems while minimizing risks to people and the environment and can be applied to manage all kinds of pests in farms. Pesticides are used only after monitoring indicates they are needed. Pest control materials are selected and applied in a manner that minimizes risks to human health, beneficial and non-target organisms, and the environment. This results in increases in soil fertility and reduction in pesticide use which have excellent benefits for famers. With fewer sprays in the crops, birds and animals, there is an increase in production and quality.

How Does IPM Work?

IPM focuses on long-term prevention of pests or their damage by managing the ecosystem. With IPM, actions are taken to keep pests from becoming a problem. In IPM, monitoring and correct pest identification helps to determine whether management is needed. After monitoring, information about the pest, its biology, and environmental factors, control measures are then applied accordingly. The most effective, long-term way to manage pests is by using a combination of methods that work better together than separately. Approaches for managing pests are often grouped in the following categories.

Biological control

Is the use of natural enemies—predators, parasites, pathogens, and competitors—to control pests and their damage. Invertebrates, plant pathogens, nematodes, weeds, and vertebrates have many natural enemies.

Cultural
controls

Cultural controls are practices that reduce pest establishment, reproduction, dispersal, and survival. For example, changing irrigation practices can reduce pest problems, since too much water can increase root disease and weeds.

Mechanical and physical controls

Mechanical and physical controls kill a pest directly, block pests out, or make the environment unsuitable for it. Physical controls include mulches for weed management, steam sterilization of the soil, or screens to keep birds or insects out.

Chemical control

In IPM, pesticides are used only when needed and in combination with other approaches for more effective, long-term control. Pesticides are selected and applied in a way that minimizes their possible harm to people, non-target organisms, and the environment.

IPM Programs

Milk Weed offers services and programs that combine these IPM principles and practices to design programs biased towards providing biological controls. Individual needs and situations differ from farm to farm but the programs are based on the following six major components:

  1. Pest identification
  2. Monitoring and assessing pest numbers and damage
  3. Guidelines for when management action is needed
  4. Preventing pest problems
  5. Using a combination of biological, cultural, physical/mechanical and chemical management tools
  6. After action is taken, assessing the effect of pest management

Through promoting IPM, we are committed to help farmers to produce products which contribute positively to the health and wellbeing of society.

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Pests
And Diseases

DISEASES
  1. Pythium

Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of cereals, vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present in the field. Infected seedlings will appear spindly and stunted, and in cereals the first true leaf is often short, twisted and cupped. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. This causes the following problems in cereals:

  • Seedling may fail to appear above the ground or collapse as soon as they emerge.
  • Seedlings and plants suffer from stunting and soft brownish water rot.

Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma Koningiopsis)

  1. Fusarium

The commonest manifestation of Fusarium in cereals is Fusarium Ear Blight (FEB) which is also known as Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) or scab. This is caused by a range of Fusarium fungi which infect the head of the cereal limiting grain development. FEB can cause severe economic loss to farmers as it can limit yields, while additionally, contaminated cereal cannot be sold for food or animal and chicken feed.

  • Ear or head blight (also known as scab) in maize, wheat and barley which infects the heads of the crops reducing grain yield.

Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma Koningiopsis)

CEREAL SOIL HEALTH
  1. Enhanced Crop Development

For favorable soil health, it is important that there are favorable interactions of all soil components including microbiota, plants and animals. This is key for agricultural sustainability and required for emerging population food needs. Modern agriculture therefore requires an integrated water, crop, pest and disease management strategy, which includes managing soil fertility and soil physical properties through promotion of soil biodiversity and soil biological processes.

While soil nutrients may be present in large amounts in the soil, they are in forms that cannot be accessed by plants. Microorganisms help to break them down to levels where plants can absorb them. Such nutrients may include phosphorous and potassium. Many bacteria and fungi secrete organic acids or other chemicals (siderophores) which dissolve the minerals and make them available to plants.

Using these micro-organisms improves plant health and crop yield improving farmers’ incomes. This increase in yield and quality has been demonstrated in a wide range of plants even during times of stress.

Solutions: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma Koningiopsis), ProBoost (Bacillus Subtilis), KemetBSF+ (Black soldier Fly Compost + Trichoderma Koningiopsis + Bacillus Subtilis)

 

  1. Enhanced Root Development

Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, is important for crop success. This is the basis of a healthy plant as shoot growth, quality and crop yield all depend on a large, healthy root system.

A well-developed root network encourages beneficial interactions with micro ‐ organisms that allows soil exploration, resource acquisition and maintenance of crop performance even under trauma caused by disease, and limited soil, water and nutrients.

The beneficial micro-organisms in this network effectively reduce root rots and increase the solubility of phosphates and micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese thus enhancing plant performance.

Solutions: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis), ProBoost (Bacillus Subtilis), NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

  1. Mealy Bugs

About: Mealybugs occur in two different forms depending on their sex: female adults are wingless soft, oval, flat-bodied insects covered with a white, powdery wax (hence the name ‘mealy bug’), while males are winged wasp-like flying insects as adults. The most common species in the greenhouse is the citrus mealy bug, Planococcus citri

Damage: Mealy bugs, like aphids and whiteflies, suck sap from the plant’s phloem tissues causing stunting, leaf deformation and sometimes yellowing. They also excrete honeydew that serves as a substrate for black sooty mold development, affecting photosynthesis and aesthetic value of the plant.

Solution: FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillum lecanii), MaxKillx5 (Bavaria Bassiana)

 

  1. Coffee Berry borer

Biology:

Damage:

Bio control: MaxKillx5 (Beauveria Bassiana)

 

 

 

 

  1. Parasitic Plant Nematodes

About: Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, un-segmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. There are also serious concerns about the use of nematicide in terms of food safety and environmental quality issues.

Damage: Stunting and yellowing with a tendency to wilt. Distortions, swellings and knots on the roots, mid- day wilting of the crop, patches of poor crop growth on the field, galls on the roots, stubby roots and lesions and dark spots on the root.

Solutions: FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii), NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

 

 

 

  1. Scale Insects

About:

Damage:

Solutions: MaxKillx5 (Bauvaria Bassiana)

  1. Thrips

Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immature thrips are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.

Damage: Thrips feed in rapidly growing tissue by sucking sap from individual cells. The sucked out empty cells are filled with air, causing a silvery appearance. Petals may exhibit ‘’colour brake,” which is pale or dark discoloration of petal tissue affected. Infested terminals may discolor, deform, and drop leaves prematurely. When thrips populations are high on ornamentals, flower buds may become deformed and fail to open. Petals may be covered with brown streaks and spots. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) can also vector certain spoviruses including Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) and several strains of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)

Solution: MaxKillx5 (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii), NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

Enhanced Crop Development

Improvement in agricultural sustainability requires an integrated water, crop, pest and disease management strategy, managing soil fertility and soil physical properties by promoting soil biodiversity and soil biological processes offers the potential for using rhizosphere processes to improve soil quality and productivity.

In many soils, nutrients such as phosphorus, potassium and iron are present in large amounts but in forms that are not available to plants. Many bacteria and fungi are able to make these nutrients available to plants by secreting organic acids or other chemicals (siderophores) to dissolve the minerals. These beneficial micro-organisms are naturally occurring and are prolific and readily available in natural, undisturbed, rich, fertile lands.

The use of these micro-organisms results in high quality crop yields often demonstrated in both size and volume of produce. This increase in yield and quality has been demonstrated in a wide range of plants even during times of stress. Increasing yield while improving quality attributes, such as firmness, colour, size and crop uniformity, gives you the competitive edge and increased profits which are key pillars of sustainable agriculture.

Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis), Flourish (BSF Compost+Trichoderma+Bacillus Subtilis)

Root Development

Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, is vital to a crop’s success. Shoot growth, quality and yield all depend on the development of a strong plant with a large, healthy root system that helps you get the most out of your fertilizer program.

A well-developed root network encourages beneficial interactions with micro ‐ organisms that allows soil exploration, resource acquisition and maintenance of crop performance even under stress caused by disease and limited soil water and nutrient conditions.

The beneficial micro-organisms in this network effectively reduce root rots and increase the solubility of phosphates and micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese thus enhancing growth of the roots and the above ground parts of the plant.

Solutions: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis), NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus).

FLOWER PESTS
FLOWER DISEASES
FRUIT PESTS
FRUIT DISEASES
DISEASES

Armillaria

Armillaria is a parasitic fungi that lives on the trees and woody shrubs, in small dense clumps or tufts. The mushroom tops are usually yellow-brown, with a sticky touch when moist.

Damage: Armillaria is a destructive pathogen in that it causes “white rot” root disease. Armillaria is a facultative saprophyte, feeding on dead plant material which allows it to kill its hosts. This is different to a parasite which must moderate their growth to avoid host death.. An infected tree will die once the fungus has caused significant root damage. Symptoms include shortage of leave in spring and mushrooms grow in clusters from the infected plant.

Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma Koningiopsis)

TEA SOIL HEALTH

Enhanced Crop Development

Improvement in agricultural sustainability requires an integrated water, crop, pest and disease management strategy, managing soil fertility and soil physical properties by promoting soil biodiversity and soil biological processes offers the potential for using rhizosphere processes to improve soil quality and productivity.

In many soils, nutrients such as phosphorus, potassium and iron are present in large amounts but in forms that are not available to plants. Many bacteria and fungi are able to make these nutrients available to plants by secreting organic acids or other chemicals (siderophores) to dissolve the minerals. These beneficial micro-organisms are naturally occurring and are prolific and readily available in natural, undisturbed, rich, fertile lands.

The use of these micro-organisms results in high quality crop yields often demonstrated in both size and volume of produce. This increase in yield and quality has been demonstrated in a wide range of plants even during times of stress. Increasing yield while improving quality attributes, such as firmness, colour, size and crop uniformity, gives you the competitive edge and increased profits which are key pillars of sustainable agriculture.

Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis), ProBoost (Bacillus Subtilis), KemetBSF+ (Blackfly Compost + Trichoderma + Bacillus Subtilis)

Enhanced Root Development

Root architecture, with its shape and structured development, is vital to a crop’s success. Shoot growth, quality and yield all depend on the development of a strong plant with a large, healthy root system that helps you get the most out of your fertilizer program.

A well-developed root network encourages beneficial interactions with micro ‐ organisms that allows soil exploration, resource acquisition and maintenance of crop performance even under stress caused by disease and limited soil water and nutrient conditions.

The beneficial micro-organisms in this network effectively reduce root rots and increase the solubility of phosphates and micronutrients such as zinc, copper, iron and manganese thus enhancing growth of the roots and the above ground parts of the plant.

Solution: NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus), Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma Koningiopsis), ProBoost (Bacillus Subtilis), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

VEGETABLE PESTS
VEGETABLES DISEASES
LIVESTOCK PESTS

TICKS

All livestock keepers know about ticks. These present the biggest challenge in livestock operations.

About: Ticks are external, temporary and obligate parasites which depend on blood to live. Hot and humid climates favor their survival, while the low temperatures inhibit their development. Ticks belong to two main families, Ixodidae and Argasidae. The most important is the Ixodidae, also called hard ticks, due to the presence of a rigid chitinous shield, which covers the entire dorsal surface of the adult male. In the adult female and in the larva and the nymph it extends only by a small area, which allows the abdomen to swell after feeding. The other family is the Argasidae or soft ticks, so called because they lack of a shield. There is a third family (Nuttalliellidae) to which only one species belongs.

Ticks are one of the biggest public health and veterinary problems in the world. These ectoparasites can impact the production and health of the animals, either directly by the effect of their bites or by the infectious agents they transmit, which include viruses, bacteria, rickettsiae and protozoa. .

Damage, harm and economic impact

  • Massive infestations of ticks can cause anemia, as a result of blood loss. Each time a tick bites its host to feed it causes stress and weakens its immune response affecting its productivity, which results in losses in the production of meat and milk, increased morbidity and in many cases mortality, in addition to the indirect economic losses for producers related to prevention and control costs.
  • Sites bitten by ticks cause lesions that may predispose to localized dermatitis, secondary bacterial infections, or invasion by flies (miasis) that are attracted to bloody areas [6]. Certain ticks contain paralyzing toxins in their saliva (for example Dermacentor andersoni, Ixodes rubicundus, I. holocyclus) that can even cause the death of affected animals. The saliva of Hyalomma truncatum can also cause toxicosis that manifests as widespread eczema in African livestock species.
  • Tick bites and subsequent itching are certainly irritating for livestock that reacts with intense scratching and stress. In severe cases scratching can cause wounds that become infected. Weight loss and reduced milk production may result.

Solution: NeemFort (Neem extract), ENTOPHAGE-X20 (CFU 9*10(9) (Isaria) Entophage Super (CFU 9*10(9) (Metarhizium)

.Application: As advised by the Customer Care Officer.

POULTRY MITES, RABBIT, PIG AND GOAT MITES.

About:

The red poultry mite, also known as the chicken mite (Dermanyssus gallinae), is a significant ectoparasite of commercial egg laying and backyard chicken. Infestations can often go unrecognized for long periods of time, as signs presented by the birds are often initially subtle. The mites are nocturnal and will hide in cracks and crevices of chicken coops during the daylight hours only coming out at night to feed on the chickens. Red poultry mites are transmitted to flocks through infected hosts (including other birds, rodents and humans).

Damage

Chicken flocks infested with red poultry mites often develop anemia, increased stress and feather pecking (loss), restlessness, and show changes in sleep patterns and associated roost positions. Anemia presents as a pale comb and wattles, dullness, reduced egg production, and weakness. Poultry mites are a menace in poultry farms. Poultry mites drink chicken blood; almost doubling their size when full. Chickens become anemic, and can even die from an infestation. Sitting chickens are at greater risk of a slow blood-letting death. Most of the solutions on the market today are chemical based. Lucky enough, we have a safe and proven biological solution: Stratiolaelaps Scimitus (Hypoaspis miles).

Adult red poultry mites are about 0.6 to 1 mm in length, have 8 legs and can range in color from white to gray, to black to deep red (depending on whether it has recently fed on blood). They have a rapid life cycle and can grow from egg to larva, followed by nymph and the last adult stage, in less than 2 weeks. They are also able to survive for up to 9 months in the environment without feeding on a host.

Solution

ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus, Strain XMpigi)

Stratiolaelaps scimitus is a small (0.5 mm) light brown mite which, as a natural predator, is used by poultry farmers for biological control of the red Poultry Mite and the Grain Mite. Females lay eggs in the soil which hatch into nymphs in 1 to 2 days. Nymphs develop into adults in 5 to 6 days. The lifecycle takes approximately 7 to 11 days.

Benefits

  • Reduced operational costs as the solution is cheaper than chemical alternatives.
  • Improved productivity and quality of productChickens doused with chemicals won’t be as productive as chickens that haven’t as the chemicals naturally stress the birds! In this case, they will not even notice the good mites.
  • Additionally, the products (eggs and flesh) are safer and healthier to eat because of the reduction in chemical residues.
TICKS

Ticks are more than just a pest that irritates a cat or a dog. They can cause terrible illness, transfer blood borne disease and in some cases, cause paralysis and even death. Once identified, it’s important to get these blood-suckers off quickly but calmly to prevent further infection.

About: Ticks are external, temporary and obligate parasites which depend on blood to live. Hot and humid climates favor their survival, while the low temperatures inhibit their development. Ticks belong to two main families, Ixodidae and Argasidae. The most important is the Ixodidae, also called hard ticks, due to the presence of a rigid chitinous shield, which covers the entire dorsal surface of the adult male. In the adult female and in the larva and the nymph it extends only by a small area, which allows the abdomen to swell after feeding. The other family is the Argasidae or soft ticks, so called because they lack of a shield. There is a third family (Nuttalliellidae) to which only one species belongs.

Ticks are one of the biggest public health and veterinary problems in the world. These ectoparasites can impact the health of the animals, either directly by the effect of their bites or by the infectious agents they transmit, which include viruses, bacteria, rickettsiae and protozoa.

Damage, harm and economic impact

  • Massive infestations of ticks can cause anemia, as a result of blood loss. Each time a tick bites its host to feed it causes stress and weakens its immune response.
  • Sites bitten by ticks cause lesions that may predispose to localized dermatitis, secondary bacterial infections, or invasion by flies (miasis) that are attracted to bloody areas [6]. Certain ticks contain paralyzing toxins in their saliva (for example Dermacentor andersoni, Ixodes rubicundus, I. holocyclus) that can even cause the death of affected animals.
  • Tick bites and subsequent itching are certainly irritating for pets which react with intense scratching and stress. In severe cases scratching can cause wounds that become infected.

Solution: NeemFort (Neem extract), ENTOPHAGE-X20 (CFU 9*10(9) (Isaria) Entophage Super (CFU 9*10(9) (Metarhizium)

Application: As advised by the Customer Care Officer.

KemetBSF+

An organic fertilizer produced using larvae of the black soldier fly and mixed with Trichoderma and Bacillus Subtilis.

Bio control agent: Trichoderma Koningiopsis, Bacillus Subtilis

Category: Nutrition
Target challenge: Soil amendment, enhanced crop development
Crop: Cereals, Flowers, Forestry, Bananas, Coffee, Fruits, Vegetables

About: KemetBSF+ is an organic fertilizer produced using larvae of the Black Soldier Fly. Flourish® is used for soil amendment, as a fertilizer and especially as a component of propagation media. It is full of beneficial micro-organisms and is essential in replenishing and enhancing biodiversity in both production substrate and soil. It is also used for protection against fungal and bacterial diseases.

Application: KemetBSF+ is applied to the soil by incorporation, as a soil amendment and propagation media and by both soil and foliar as a fertilizer. Foliar application will require a solution of water that has been run through Flourish and collected.

What we make for you

We develop
organic bio chemicals

Partners

Office;
Mawanda Rd., Plot 625 Block 22
Kampala, uganda

Laboratories;
Lugala and Kawanda

Email: info@milkweedbiologicals.com/
Phone: +256 774676702 Phone: +256 784052958 Phone: +256 791630348 (Laboratory)

Having trouble? Find the answer to your query here. Don’t hasitate to contact us!

    Milkweed Biologicals (U) Ltd was founded in 2017 by Thomas Ayshford. A British Entomologist and Microbiologist, living in Uganda. Before coming to Uganda in 2015, Thomas was working with the Natural History Museum in London for four years in the department of Entomology.

    Our company’s main aim is to lead the way in Uganda to facilitate and encourage the reduction of Chemical Pesticides in the Agricultural Industry through the development of Indigenous, locally sourced Biological Control Agents.  Furthermore we want to develop a structure for modernising agriculture in Uganda, increasing yield and quality through more sustainable farming using Education, Mechanisation, Intergrated Pest Management and use of Co-operative Farming.

    The use of Biological Agents has been met with huge success worldwide, yet, the technology is in its infancy here in this country that needs it most.

    With the availability of Biological Agents, that are locally sourced, the use of Indigenous Biological Control Agents have been proved to significantly increase Yield, Quality and Plant Health, while inversely affecting the range and amounts of Chemicals used in Agriculture.

    There is an existing and growing problem in the agricultural sector in Uganda in the form of excessive Chemical usage in the control of Pests and Disease. The Chemicals are expensive, becoming less and less effective, and not to mention, they are very unsafe, both for Humans, and for the Environment, even if the end user is well trained. Further, this is having a considerable negative effect on Exports from Uganda, thus depriving Uganda of Trade, Employment and Development.

    We believe that we can lead in a solution for reducing the Chemical Impact through the production and use of our locally sourced, developed, and importantly, affordable Biological Pesticides and Disease Suppressants.

    Imported Biological agents are currently expensive, and difficult to bring into Uganda, and are not locally sourced risking questions of introduced Species to the Environment and creating imbalances in the Environment as well as the organisms not being suited to this environment.

    Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis, CFU 9*109, Strain X15)

    Contains spores of Trichoderma koningiopsis, an antagonistic fungus for control of soil borne fungal diseases

    Bio control agent: Trichoderma koningiopsis

    Category: Beneficial Fungi

    Target: Kills fungal pathogens such as Fusarium in the root biom, and Alternaria in the foliar. Out competes bacterial pathogens and also increases yield in the plant, and increases immune response of the plant.

    Crop: Cereals, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables, Bananas, Maize

    Mode of Action

    Trichoderma koningiopsis has been found effective in plant disease management due to unique properties that include:

    Application

    Foundation+ application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

    1. Drip application

    Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of the Foundation+.

    1. Drench application

    Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with Foundation+ after application.

    1. Dip application

    This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product.

    1. Seed Coating

    This is important to start off seeds. Pour seeds, a little water (ensure that the water is not dripping or running off), some cooking oil and the product into a mixing bucket or container.

    Rates: As directed by the Customer Care Officer

    2. MaxKillx5 (CFU 9*10(9) Strains X23, X5)

    Contains organic fungal spores based on Beauveria Bassiana for use against crawling and sucking insects.

    Bio control agent: Beauveria Bassiana

    Category: Beneficial Fungi

    Target challenge: Bedbugs, cockroaches, termites, white ants...

    Crop: Cereals, Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables,

    Mode of Action

    Fungus parasitizes and subsequently kills eggs, juveniles, and adult females of various plant parasitic nematodes. Death occurs in 3-5 days depending on the size of the insect and other conditions such as insect age, size and species, humidity and temperature. Insect becomes a vector and infects other insects while it lives, and after death, continues to release spores to infect other insects. The product doesn’t kill predatory mites as they are not insects.

    Relative humidity of above 70% and temperatures of between 18 – 30°C are essential for fungi development and growth. Infection will occur within 24 to 48 hours. For best results, application should be before pest infestations become heavy.

    Application

    Mix the required amount of MaxKillx5® with water using 1 litres for every 125g product; stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to the required volume of water in the spray tank and mix well. Add an appropriate water at recommended rates and mix thoroughly. After mixing with water the product should be drenched/Band applied as soon as possible and washed in with more volumes of water; DO NOT store overnight.

    Storage

    Store in a cool, dry place in a tightly closed original pack. Do not freeze. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C.

    ENTOPHAGE-X20 (CFU 9*10(9) Strain X20)

    Contains fungi useful in the control of insects such as cockroaches and, termites, aphids and mosquitoes.

    Bio control agent: Isaria fumosoroseus

    Category: Beneficial Fungi

    Target challenge: Sucking insects such as cockroaches, termites, mosquitoes and aphids.

    Crop: Cereals, Bananas, Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables

    Other Applications: Fumigation

    Mode of Action

    Fungus parasitizes and subsequently kills eggs, juveniles, and adult females of various plant parasitic insects. It infects the insect but doesn’t cause instant death. Death occurs in 3-5 days depending on the size of the insect and other conditions such humidity and temperature. Insect becomes a vector and infects other insects while it lives, and after death, continues to release spores to infect other insects.

    Relative humidity of above 70% and temperatures of between 18 – 30°C are essential for fungi development and growth. Infection will occur within 24 to 48 hours. For best results, application should be before pest infestations become heavy.

    Preparation and Application

    Mix the 125gm of ENTOPHAGE-X20® WP with 1000 litres of water. First mix the product in 1 litre of water and stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to the 1000 liters of water in the spray tank and mix well. After mixing with water the product should be drenched/Band applied as soon as possible and washed in with more volumes of water; DO NOT store overnight.

    Rates

    Frequency of application varies with the pest pressure and the crop. Generally it is recommended to apply, 14 days just before planting followed by a second application 4 - 6 weeks after planting and a repeat every four weeks.

    Storage

    Store in a cool, dry place in a tightly closed original pack. Do not freeze and do not allow the product to undergo thermal shock. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C.

    Entophage Super® (CFU 9*10(9) Strain X9, X11)

    Organic generalist insect fungi that targets and kills cockroaches, termites, aphids, and other sucking insects.

    Bio control agent: Metarhizium anisopliae

    Category: Beneficial Fungi

    Target challenge: Bedbugs, cockroaches, termites, aphids, white ants.

    Crop: Cereals, Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables

    Fumigation of Homes, hotels and lodges, hospitals, prisons, public transport, education institutes

    Mode of Action

    Fungus parasitizes and subsequently kills eggs, juveniles, and adult females of various insects. Death occurs in 3-5 days depending on the size of the insect and other conditions such as insect age, size and species, humidity and temperature. Insect becomes a vector and infects other insects while it lives, and after death, continues to release spores to infect other insects. This fungi doesn’t kill predatory mites as they are not insects.

    Preparation and Application

    Mix 125gm of the Entophage Super® for every 1000 litres of water. First mix the product in 1 litre of water and stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to the 1000 litres of water in the spray tank and mix well. After mixing with water the product should be drenched/Band applied as soon as possible and washed in with more volumes of water; DO NOT store overnight.

    Rates

    Frequency of application varies with the pest pressure and the crop. Generally it is recommended to apply, 14 days just before planting followed by a second application 4 - 6 weeks after planting and a repeat every four weeks.

    NEMARID3X® (CFU 9*109. Strains X22, XU10, XC17)

    A natural nematophagous fungus based on Purpureocillium lilacinus used for control of parasitic plant nematodes, and the young and eggs particularly of Moth and Butterfly.

    Bio control agent: Purpureocillium lilacinus

    Category: Beneficial Fungi

    Target challenge: Enhanced root development, Plant Parasitic Nematodes (For use in controlling: eggs, juveniles and females of Meloidogyne spp: Radopholus similis, Heterodera spp; Globodera spp: Pratylenchus spp: Rotylenchus spp; and Nacobbus spp.)

    Crop: Cereals, Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Tea, Vegetables

    Mode of Action

    Fungus parasitizes and subsequently kills eggs, juveniles, and adult females of various plant parasitic nematodes.

    Preparation and Application

    Mix 125gm of NEMARID3X® for every 1000 litres of water. First mix the product in 1 litre of water and stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to 1000 litres of water and mix well. After mixing with water the product should be drenched/Band applied as soon as possible and washed in with more volumes of water; DO NOT store overnight.

    Rates

    Frequency of application varies with the pest pressure and the crop. Generally it is recommended to apply, 14 days just before planting followed by a second application 4 - 6 weeks after planting and a repeat every four weeks.

    Storage

    Store in a cool, dry place in a tightly closed original pack. Do not freeze and do not allow the product to undergo thermal shock. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C.

    FarmJoy Plus+ CFU 9*10(9) Strain X5

    About: A biological insecticide containing Lecanicillium lecanii, a naturally occurring fungus that is effective against Thrips, Aphids, Mealy Bugs, Scale insects, White Fly and other sucking insects.

    Bio control agent: Lecanicillium lecanii

    Category: Beneficial Fungi

    Target challenge: Aphids, Leafminers, Mealybugs, Scale Insects, Thrips, Whiteflies

    Crop: Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Vegetables, Bananas

    Mode of Action

    Spores germinate and penetrate the cuticle of the insect by enzymatic and mechanical actions eventually infecting the insect. Infected larvae and pupae die before the fungus is visible. Dead larvae and pupae of infected insects have a wrinkled non-shiny surface with a light to dark yellow color.

    Relative humidity of above 70% and temperatures of between 18 – 30°C are essential for fungi development and growth. Infection will occur within 24 to 48 hours. For best results, application should be before pest infestations become heavy.

    Application

    Mix 125gm of FarmJoy Plus®  for every 1000 litres of water. First add 125g of the product in 1 litre of water and stir well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to 1000 litres of water and mix well. The mixed product should be sprayed as soon as possible; DO NOT store overnight.  Ensure that all leaf surfaces where the insects abound are covered thoroughly well. Maintain a minimum Relative humidity of 70 % for at least 12 hours. Highest infection levels are achieved at temperatures of between 20 -28°C.

    Frequency of Application

    Curative spraying should be done at intervals of 5-7 days of between 2-4 applications. However this will vary with the pest pressure.

    Storage

    Keep in dry and cool place in tightly closed original pack. Do not expose to direct sunlight or Heat. May be stored in original unopened container for six months at temperatures of 6 – 12°C

    Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9). Strains X5, X23, X20, X9, X22).

    About: A blend of insecticidal fungi that targets Thrips, Aphids, Mealy Bugs White Fly and other sucking insects.

    Bio control agent: cocktails of Strains X5, X23, X20, X9, X22

    Category: Beneficial Fungi

    Target: Aphids, Coffee Berry Borer, Leaf miners, Mealy bugs, Scale Insects, Thrips, Whiteflies

    Crop: Coffee, Flowers, Fruits, Vegetables

    Mode of Action

    Fungi spores will attach to the insect body, germinate and through enzymatic action break the insect cuticle and penetrate the insect body. Death will occur over 3-5 days, depending on the size of the age, species, dose and the environmental conditions. The insect becomes a vector for the fungi while it lives, and while it is dead as spore are released from it to infect other insects. The Fungi does not kill predatory mites as they are not insects.

    Relative humidity of above 70% and temperatures of between 18 – 30°C are essential for fungi development and growth. Infection will occur within 24 to 48 hours. For best results, application should be before pest infestations become heavy.

    Application

    Entophage-Gen®  is applied as a foliar spray:

    Mix Entophage-Gen® ® with water at a rate of 1 Litre per 125gms. Mix well to form a uniform mixture. Add the mixture to the required volume of water in the spray tank and mix well.

    Thoroughly coverage of the leaf surfaces where the insects are to be found is a must to obtain good efficacy. Best results will be achieved when applications are done early morning or late afternoon.

    Storage

    Store in a cool, dry place in tightly closed original container. Do not freeze. The product may be stored in the original unopened container for 6 months at temperatures of 10-20°C.

    Compatibility

    EntophageXGen® is compatible with most bio controls and insecticides… Avoid chemical fungicide spray at least 3 days before and after using EntophageXGen®.

    BasilaFly+ (CFU 9*10(9) Strain BT10)

    Contains Bacterial spores which target only fly larvae.

    Bio control agent: Bacillus Thuringiensis Israelensis

    Category: Beneficial Bacteria

    Target: Flies.

    Crop: Bananas, passion fruits, vegetables, maize, cabbage and eggplant.

    Mode of Action

    The bacterial spores when eaten by the moth and/or fly will damage the stomach of the insect, killing it. The bacteria will germinate from the spores, eating the tissue of the dying insect and will also infect other insects that come into contact.

    Application

    BasilaFly+® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

    Drip application

    Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of the Basila Fly+ ®.

    Drench application

    Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with Basila Fly+ ® after application.

    Dip application

    This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product. Make a solution with 300ml in adequate water to treat plants to be planted in 1 hectare.

    Frequency of Application

    Apply pre-plant, as a seed coat or every two weeks to one month depending on the disease pressure.

    Rates

    It is recommended to apply Basila Fly+ ® at a minimum rate of 300ml per hectare.

    Storage

    Store Basila Fly+  in temperatures below…

    Basila+ (Strain BTK12)

    Contains Bacterial spores which target only moth and butterfly larvae (caterpillars).

    Bio control agent: Bacillus Thuringiensis Kurkstani

    Category: Beneficial Bacteria

    Target: Moth and butterflies larvae.

    Crop: Fruits, Bananas, Vegetables, maize, beans, peas, cabbage, lettuce and other leafy crops.

    Mode of Action

    The bacterial spores when eaten by the moth and/or fly will damage the stomach of the insect, killing it. The bacteria will germinate from the spores, eating the tissue of the dying insect.

    Application

    Basila+® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

    Drip application

    Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of the Basila+®.

    Drench application

    Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with Basila +® after application.

    Dip application

    This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product.

    Frequency of Application

    Apply pre-plant, as a seed coat or every two weeks to one month depending on the disease pressure.

    Rates

    It is recommended to apply Basila +® at a minimum rate of 300ml per hectare.

    Storage

    Store Basila +® in temperatures below…

    Mothrid+® (Aizawai Strain BTAB11) butterfly

    Contains Bacterial spores which targets only moth and butterfly larvae.

    Bio control agent: Bacillus Thuringiensis

    Category: Beneficial Bacteria

    Target: Moth and butterflies larvae.

    Crop: Fruits, Vegetables, maize, beans, peas, cabbage, lettuce and other leafy crops.

    Mode of Action

    The bacterial spores when eaten by the moth and/or fly will damage the stomach of the insect, killing it. The bacteria will germinate from the spores, eating the tissue of the dying insect.

    Application

    Mothrid+® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

    Drip application

    Apply the solution through the fertigation drip system using adequate water volume. Agitation of the mixture should continue throughout the application period to ensure uniform distribution of the Mothrid+®.

    Drench application

    Pour into a watering can or sprayer / applicator and apply evenly onto the target area. Irrigate the area treated with Mothrid+® after application.

    Dip application

    This is recommended as a pre-transplant application for rooted plantlets or cuttings. Put them standing into perforated plastic crates and dip-to-soak soil plugs and /or roots into a solution of the product.

    Frequency of Application

    Apply pre-plant, as a seed coat or every two weeks to one month depending on the disease pressure.

    Rates

    It is recommended to apply Mothrid+® at a minimum rate of 300ml per hectare.

    Storage

    Store Mothrid+® in temperatures below…

    ProBoost® (Strain BTS1)

    Contains Bacterial spores that are used to improve plant performance and yield.

    Bio control agent: Bacillus Subtilis

    Category: Beneficial Bacteria

    Target: Increase in soil performance and mineral availability.

    Crop: Fruits, Vegetables, maize, beans, peas, cabbage, lettuce and other leafy crops.

    Mode of Action

    The bacterial will digest organic matter in the soil, making it available for the plants to take up micro-nutrietnts.

    Application

    ProBoost +® application recommendations vary depending on method of application and target crop. Owing to its mode of action, the product should be applied preventatively before disease onset in the plants.

    Frequency of Application

    Apply pre-plant, as a seed coat or every two weeks to one month depending on the disease pressure.

    Rates

    It is recommended to apply ProBoost +® at a minimum rate of 30ml per hectare.

    Storage

    Store ProBoost+ in a cool dry place.

    ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus, Strain XMpigi)

    Contains the predatory mite Hypoaspis miles for managing Bulb mites, Thrips, Fungus gnats, Leaf miners, Sciarid flies, Red poultry mites and Shore flies. The adults of Hypoaspis miles are about 1mm in size and normally brown.

    Biological control agent: Hypoaspis miles

    Category: Beneficial Insect Predators

    Target challenge: Bulb Mites, Leaf miners, Sciarid Flies, Thrips, Red poultry mite,

    Used in: Flowers, Vegetables, Poultry, Animals

    Mode of Action

    In Poultry:

    The mites are a natural enemy of the red poultry mite (Dermanyssus gallinae) in poultry operations. Both nymphs and adults feed on other small insects pests, consuming up to 5 preys per day. Both males and females are present, but males are smaller and rarely seen. When the primary food source (the poultry mite) is all gone, the predator mite will starve and die. The predators are safe for the birds, endemic (not a new species in the tropical environment), easily adjust to the chicken house climate, and are self-limiting.

    Environmental Conditions

    Predator prefers humid and moist soil/media conditions but it must not be too wet, they prefer rich organic matter with an open structure and temperature ranges of between 15-30° c.

    Application

    The mites are dispersed on to a growth media before or after planting or later on in the early growth period of the crop. For best results, ENTOPHAGE-x should be applied before the target pest is well established.

    Rates

    It is recommended to apply 50-300 mites per m2 or 500,000-3,000,000 mites per hectare, depending on the crop. Higher rates are recommended where the target pest has established.

    Storage

    Storage after receipt maximum 1-2 days; normally recommended for application within 24 hours of receipt. Store and transport at temperatures of 10-20°c, out of direct sunlight

    Aphids

    About: Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies measuring 1.5-4mm in length with long legs and antennae, their color ranges from green, yellow, brown, red, to black depending on the species. They occur in clusters around the young terminal shoots or under the leaves.

    Damage: Aphid nymphs and adults suck plant sap leading to stunted growth, deformed leaves and sometimes yellow spots appear. In addition to damage from direct feeding on plant sap, they excrete excess sugars in the form of honeydew which serves as a growth medium for black sooty mold. This soils the crop, reducing photosynthesis and consequently growth and production. Aphids are also vectors of plant pathogenic substances, particularly, viruses.

    Solutions: MaxKillx5 (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii)

    Cut worms

    About: Cutworms is the name used for the larvae of a number of species of adult moths. Adults are grayish hairless caterpillars of waxy appearance that attacks vegetables during nights and hides in the soil during the day. The larvae stage attacks the first part it encounters, the stem and often the seedling. The adult moth has brown wings with 1-1/2 inch wingspan.

    Damage: Wilting in young plants with stems attacked near the ground level.

    Solution: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Cyclamen mites (and all Bulb mites)

    About: Cyclamen mites are tiny arachnids that are oval, translucent white to yellow-green in color and are 0.25mm in size with six legs for the first nymph and eight legs for the remaining stages. They are very difficult to identify until severe damages occur. Cyclamen mites are mostly found on the base of the plant or near the buds. They prefer darkened humid areas of immature leaves and buds in growing tips.

    Damage: Cyclamen mites feed through sucking the cell contents resulting in detrimental damage. Plant symptoms include distortion of the growing tip, resulting in thickening of the meristematic (growing point) tissue. Damages results in the curling up of leaves and blotching with some foliage turning purple in color. Damaged buds do not develop and plants may not produce flowers or fruits.

    Solution: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Leafminers

    About: Vegetable Leafminers are small black flies with a bright yellow spot on their thorax; the maggot makes long, slender, white mines (tunnels) in leaves. Mining or puncturing activities on the plant causes cosmetic damage and makes it an important pest.  The larvae are often visible within the mine where they remove mesophyll between the surfaces of the leaf.

    Damage: The act of laying eggs and feeding on leaves can kill seedlings. It is also an agent for fungal diseases.

    Solution: MaxKillx5 (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9), Basila Fly (CFU 9*10(9) Strain BT10)

    Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    About: Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, unsegmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. They also pause serious concerns in terms of food safety and environmental quality issues.

    Damage: Stunting and yellowing with a tendency to wilt. Visibly, there will be distortions, swellings and knots of various sizes on the plant roots. Mid- day wilting of the crop, Patches of poor crop growth on the field, galls on the roots, stubby roots and lesions and dark spots on the root.

    Solution: NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

    Red Spider (and Bulb mites)

    About: Spider mites are tiny arachnids (not insects) measuring about 0.5mm long with an oval shaped body which varies in color from greenish-yellow, to virtually transparent, brown, and red-orange with two dark spots visible on either side of the abdomen. The life cycle involves five developmental stages: egg, larva, two nymphal stages, and adult. Immatures resemble adults (except they are much smaller and lighter in colour), and the newly hatched larvae have only six legs.

    Damage: Adults and juveniles feed on the underside of leaves by inserting their stylets into the plant cells and sucking out the cell contents resulting in typical ‘stippling’ damage i.e. white or chlorotic spots easily recognizable on the upper leaf surface. Defoliation, leaf burning, and even plant death can occur due to direct feeding damage. Indirect effects of feeding may include decrease in photosynthesis and transpiration. This combination of direct and indirect effects often reduces the aesthetic value and/or amount of harvestable material.

    Solution: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Sciarid Flies

    About: Adult Sciarid flies are slender, approximately 2.5 mm in length, and have long legs and antennae. They are weak fliers but can run quite rapidly across the soil surface. Their wings are clear or smokey-colored with no pattern and few distinct veins. However, the females of several species are wingless. They have shiny black head capsules.

    Damage: Larvae, however, when present in large numbers, can damage roots and stunt plant growth, particularly in seedlings and young plants. Significant root damage and even plant death have been observed in interior plants capes and in houseplants when high populations were associated with moist, organically-rich soil.

    Solution: ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), Basila Fly (CFU 9*10(9) Strain BT10)

    Thrips

    About: Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immatures are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.

    Damage: Thrips feed in rapidly growing tissue by sucking sap from individual cells. The sucked out empty cells are filled with air, causing a silvery appearance. Petals may exhibit ‘’colour brake,” which is pale or dark discoloration of petal tissue affected. Infested terminals may discolor, deform, and drop leaves prematurely. When thrips populations are high on ornamentals, flower buds may become deformed and fail to open. Petals may be covered with brown streaks and spots. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) can also vector certain spoviruses including Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) and several strains of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)

    Solution: MaxKillx5 (Beauveria Bassiana), ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Whiteflies

    About: Whiteflies derive their name from the powdery white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny (less than 2mm long) insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. They usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. The most common species in horticultural farming is the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Damage: Whiteflies suck phloem sap. Large populations can cause leaves to deform, turn yellow, appear dry, or fall off plants. They also excrete honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold. The honeydew may also attract ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control whiteflies and other pests.

    Solution: MaxKillx5 (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Mealy Bugs

    About: Mealy bugs occur in two different forms depending on their sex: female adults are wingless soft, oval, flat-bodied insects covered with a white, powdery wax (hence the name ‘mealy bug’), while males are winged wasp-like flying insects as adults.

    Biology: The females go through the stages of egg, three nymphal stages and adult insect; the males go through egg, two nymphal stages, false pupa and adult insect. A female can lay up to 500 eggs in a cotton-like pouch made of wax threads after which it dies. The eggs hatch into young bugs called crawlers which disperse to find suitable feeding sites and then begin to feed on plant sap. This is the most susceptible stage to chemical pesticides as they do not have the waxy covering. The length of the lifecycle depends on temperature and takes 90 days at 18°C and 30 days at 30°C.

    Damage: Mealy bugs, like aphids and whiteflies, suck sap from the plant’s phloem tissues causing stunting, leaf deformation and sometimes yellowing. They also excrete honeydew that serves as a substrate for black sooty mold development, affecting photosynthesis and aesthetic value of the plant.

    Solution: MaxKillx5 (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Botrytis Blight

    About: A fungal disease which attacks cankered stems and flowers. The fungus grows into a gray brown fuzz mycelium that causes the flower petals to turn brown and shrivel. The predisposing factors are cooler and moist weather conditions. This can be accelerated by weakened plant tissues. Stressed plants are highly susceptible to the disease pathogens.

    Damage: Infection usually begins spotted flower petals. A grayish brown fuzz grows on infected plant parts. Flowers shrivel and decay.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis).

    Crown Gall

    The disease is caused by a soil inhabiting bacteria that enters the plant through wounds (cuts, abrasions). The bacterium forms cream, brownish black, irregular masses of tissue (galls) that start as small tissue swellings and eventually develop into lumpy and rough textured masses. This bacterium attacks the roots and the bud union and usually concentrates on the lower base of a plant. Infected plants can survive with this gall for several years or decline and eventually die. These galls can negatively impact on rose’s production.

    Damage

    Solution: NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

    Downey Mildew

    About: A major disease of foliar of roses and other flowers which is actually hot environments. The initial symptoms are found on the top surface of leaves and consist of small pale green to greasy looking angular or rectangular spots that are delimited by leaf vein. During moist weather the corresponding lower leaf surface is covered with downy, pale gray to purple fungal mycelium and spores.

    Damage: Purple angular spots with yellow edges forms on the veins on the upper leaf surface. Fluffy gray spores grow on the underside of infected leaves. Blackish to dark red spots may appear on infected plant stem in severe infestation. Leaves become brittle and drop off.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Fusarium
    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of roses. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.
    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.
    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Powdery Mildew

    About: This disease is caused by a fungus that attacks the plant and forms a white powdery spore on new tender growth then spreads out into other plant parts. The pathogen is usually favoured by warm, dry days and cooler, damp nights. The new leaves may become curled or twisted and the shoots may look badly deformed. In some varieties, the upper surface of the leaf may appear normal but the underside has extensive fungus growth.

    Damage: Starts as small white or gray powdery spots on leaves or new growth. Leaves covered with white powdery mold, occurs in hot dry conditions.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Pythium

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of roses. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off.” Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis),

    Rhizoctonia

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of roses. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Sclerotinia

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of flowers. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Mealy Bugs.

    Mealy bugs occur in two different forms depending on their sex: female adults are wingless soft, oval, flat-bodied insects covered with a white, powdery wax (hence the name ‘mealy bug’), while males are winged wasp-like flying insects as adults. The most common species in the greenhouse is the citrus mealy bug, Planococcus citri.

     About: The females go through the stages of egg, three nymphal stages and adult insect; the males go through egg, two nymphal stages, false pupa and adult insect. A female can lay up to 500 eggs in a cotton-like pouch made of wax threads after which it dies. The eggs hatch into young bugs called crawlers which disperse to find suitable feeding sites and then begin to feed on plant sap. This is the most susceptible stage to chemical pesticides as they do not have the waxy covering. The length of the lifecycle depends on temperature and takes 90 days at 18°C and 30 days at 30°C.

    Damage: Mealybugs, like aphids and whiteflies, suck sap from the plant’s phloem tissues causing stunting, leaf deformation and sometimes yellowing. They also excrete honeydew that serves as a substrate for black sooty mold development, affecting photosynthesis and aesthetic value of the plant.

    Solution: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9),  FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii)

    False Coddling Moth

    About: Thaumatotibia (Cryptophlebia) leucotreta, commonly known as the False Coddling Moth, orange moth or citrus coddling moth, is a moth in the Tortricidae family. It is native to Sub-Saharan Africa and is adapted for warm climate survival.

    Damage: It presents a big challenge to the citrus fruit farmers as all stages of the fruit are susceptible to it. Eggs are laid on the surface of the fruit and after and after emerging from the egg, the larvae burrow into the rind. Once the fruit has been penetrated, it is no longer a marketable item, and incidences of disease and mold increase. The open cavity becomes an entry point for other pests and pathogens. Establishment of the false coddling moth population results in increased pesticide usage.

    Solution:  Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Aphids

    About: Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies measuring 1.5-4mm in length with long legs and antennae, their colour ranges from green, yellow, brown, red, to black depending on the species. They occur in clusters around the young terminal shoots or under the leaves.

    Damage: Aphid nymphs and adults suck plant sap leading to stunted growth, deformed leaves and sometimes yellow spots appear. In addition to damage from direct feeding on plant sap, they excrete excess sugars in the form of honeydew which serves as a growth medium for black sooty mold. This soils the crop, reducing photosynthesis and consequently growth and production. Aphids are also vectors of plant pathogenic substances, particularly, viruses.

    Solutions: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii)

    Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    About: Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, un-segmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. There are serious concerns in terms of food safety and environmental quality issues.

    Damage: Stunting and yellowing with a tendency to wilt. There will be visible distortion, swellings and knots of various sizes on roots. Mid- day wilting of the crop, Patched of poor crop growth on the field, galls on the roots, stubby roots and lesions and dark spots on the root.

    Solution: NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

    About: Adult Sciarid flies are slender, approximately 2.5 mm in length, and have long legs and antennae. They are weak fliers but can run quite rapidly across the soil surface. Their wings are clear or smokey-colored with no pattern and few distinct veins. However, the females of several species are wingless. They have shiny black head capsules.

    Damage: Larvae, however, when present in large numbers, can damage roots and stunt plant growth, particularly in seedlings and young plants. Significant root damage and even plant death have been observed in interior and houseplants when high populations were associated with moist, organically-rich soil.

    Solution: ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Thrips

    About: Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immatures are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.

    Damage: Thrips feed in rapidly growing tissue by sucking sap from individual cells. The sucked out empty cells are filled with air, causing a silvery appearance. Petals may exhibit ‘’colour brake,” which is pale or dark discoloration of petal tissue affected. Infested terminals may discolor, deform, and drop leaves prematurely. When thrips populations are high on ornamentals, flower buds may become deformed and fail to open. Petals may be covered with brown streaks and spots. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) can also vector certain spoviruses including Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) and several strains of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)

    Solution: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9), ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii).

    Whiteflies

    About: Whiteflies derive their name from the powdery white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny (less than 2mm long) insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. They usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. The most common species in horticultural farming is the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Damage: Whiteflies suck phloem sap. Large populations can cause leaves to deform, turn yellow, appear dry, or fall off plants. They also excrete honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold. The honeydew may also attract ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control whiteflies and other pests.

    Solution: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii).

    Botrytis Blight

    About: A fungal disease which attacks cankered stems and flowers. The fungus grows into a gray brown fuzz mycelium that causes the flower petals to turn brown and shrivel. The predisposing factors are cooler and moist weather conditions. This can be accelerated by weakened plant tissues. Stressed plants are highly susceptible to the disease pathogens.

    Damage: Infection usually begins spotted flower petals. Grayish brown fuzz grows on infected plant parts. Flowers shrivel and decay.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Downey Mildew

    About: A major disease of foliar of fruits and is particular severe in tropical environment. The initial symptoms are found on the top surface of leaves and consist of small pale green to greasy looking angular or rectangular spots that are delimited by leaf vein. During moist weather the corresponding lower leaf surface is covered with downy, pale gray to purple fungal mycelium and spores.

    Damage: Purple angular spots with yellow edges forms on the veins on the upper leaf surface. Fluffy gray spores grow on the underside of infected leaves. Blackish to dark red spots may appear on infected plant stem in severe infestation. Leaves become brittle and drop off.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Fusarium

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of fruits. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis).

    Powdery Mildew

    About: This disease is caused by a fungus that attacks the plant and forms a white powdery spore on new tender growth then spreads out into other plant parts. The pathogen is usually favored by warm, dry days and cooler, damp nights. The new leaves may become curled or twisted and the shoots may look badly deformed. In some varieties, the upper surface of the leaf may appear normal but the underside has extensive fungus growth.

    Damage: Starts as small white or gray powdery spots on leaves or new growth. Leaves covered with white powdery mold, occurs in hot dry conditions.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Pythium

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off.” Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis).

    Rhizoctonia

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis).

    Sclerotinia

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Aphids

    About: Aphids have soft pear-shaped bodies measuring 1.5-4mm in length with long legs and antennae, their colour ranges from green, yellow, brown, red, to black depending on the species. They occur in clusters around the young terminal shoots or under the leaves.

    Damage: Aphid nymphs and adults suck plant sap leading to stunted growth, deformed leaves and sometimes yellow spots appear. In addition to damage from direct feeding on plant sap, they excrete excess sugars in the form of honeydew which serves as a growth medium for black sooty mold. This soils the crop, reducing photosynthesis and consequently growth and production. Aphids are also vectors of plant pathogenic substances, particularly, viruses.

    Solutions: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii)

    Bulb Mites

    About: Bulb mites infest the bulbs of many plant species among them; lilies, onions, tulip, hyacinth and many other vegetable crops, cereals and ornamentals. They can occur in the field during growing and in storage after harvest.

    Damage: Bulb mites feed on the underground parts of bulbs, weakening the plant tissues. Feeding scars predispose the bulbs to secondary infection by plant pathogens such as Fusarium, Pythium, and Rhizoctonia. Typical symptoms include rosetting, retarded growth, and chlorosis of new shoots and occasionally the new growth can be smothered to death. Flower stalks can be stunted or fail to develop all together. Bulb mites are difficult to observe until their damage becomes apparent.

    Solution: ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus)

    Cut worms

    About: Cutworms is the name used for the larvae of a number of species of adult moths. Adults are grayish hairless caterpillars of waxy appearance that attack vegetables during nights and hides in the soil during the day. The larvae stage attacks the first part it encounters, the stem and often the seedling. The adult moth has brown wings with 1-1/2 inch wingspan.

    Damage: It causes wilting in young plants, with plants attacked near ground level.

    Solution: Entophage-X15 (9CFU 9*10(9) Strains X5, X23, X20, X9, X22), Mothrid+ (Aizawai Strain BTAB11)

    Diamondback Moth

    About: The moth is a small, greyish brown with narrow front wings, conspicuously fringed hind wings, and approximately 8 to 9 mm long with a wing span of 12 to 15 mm. When at rest, the wings come together to form a line of white or pale yellow diamonds down the middle of the back. When the wings are folded while the moth is at rest, these markings come together to form three yellow diamonds, hence the name “diamondback”. The life cycle involves seven developmental stages: egg, four larvae instars, pupa and Adult.

    Damage: Plant damage is caused by larval feeding. Although the larvae are very small, they can be quite numerous, resulting in complete removal of foliar tissue except for the leaf veins. This "window-pane" damage is very characteristic. This is particularly damaging to seedlings, and may disrupt head formation in cabbage, broccoli, and cauliflower. The presence of larvae in florets can result in complete rejection of produce, even if the level of plant tissue removal is insignificant.

    Solution: Basila+ (Bacillus Thuringiensis Kurkstani), ENTOPHAGE-x Stratiolaelaps scimitus mites)

    Leafminers

    About: Vegetable Leafminers is a small black fly with a bright yellow spot on their thorax; the maggot makes long, slender, white mines (tunnels) in leaves. Mining or puncturing activities on the plant causes cosmetic damage and makes it an important pest.  The larvae are often visible within the mine where they remove mesophyll between the surfaces of the leaf.

    Damage: The act of laying eggs and feeding on leaves can kill seedlings. It is also an agent for fungal diseases.

    Solution: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9), ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii).

    Plant Parasitic Nematodes

    About: Nematodes are tiny, round-bodied, unsegmented, worms. Plant parasitic nematodes cause economic losses to horticultural and field crop worldwide. There are also serious concerns in terms of food safety and environmental quality issues.

    Damage: Stunting and yellowing with a tendency to wilt. Visibly, there will be Distorted, swollen and bearing knots of various sizes on roots. Mid- day wilting of the crop, Patched of poor crop growth on the field, galls on the roots, stubby roots and lesions and dark spots on the root.

    Solution: NEMARID3X (Purpureocillium lilacinus)

    Sciarid Flies

    About: Adult Sciarid flies are slender, approximately 2.5 mm in length, and have long legs and antennae. They are weak fliers but can run quite rapidly across the soil surface. Their wings are clear or smokey-colored with no pattern and few distinct veins. However, the females of several species are wingless. They have shiny black head capsules.

    Damage: Larvae, however, when present in large numbers, can damage roots and stunt plant growth, particularly in seedlings and young plants. Significant root damage and even plant death have been observed in interior and house plants when high populations were associated with moist, organically-rich soil.

    Solution: ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Thrips

    About: Adult thrips are tiny (1-2mm long) slender insects with fringed wings. Immatures are similarly shaped with a long, narrow abdomen but lack wings. Most thrips range in colour from translucent white or yellowish to dark brown or blackish, depending on the species and life stage.

    Damage: Thrips feed in rapidly growing tissue by sucking sap from individual cells. The sucked out empty cells are filled with air, causing a silvery appearance. Petals may exhibit ‘’colour brake,” which is pale or dark discoloration of petal tissue affected. Infested terminals may discolor, deform, and drop leaves prematurely. When thrips populations are high on ornamentals, flower buds may become deformed and fail to open. Petals may be covered with brown streaks and spots. Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis) can also vector certain spoviruses including Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) and several strains of Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV)

    Solution: Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9), ENTOPHAGE-x (Stratiolaelaps scimitus), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Whiteflies

    About: Whiteflies derive their name from the powdery white wax covering the adult’s wings and body. Adults are tiny (less than 2mm long) insects with yellowish bodies and whitish wings. They usually occur in groups on the undersides of leaves. The most common species in horticultural farming is the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum.

    Damage: Whiteflies suck phloem sap. Large populations can cause leaves to deform, turn yellow, appear dry, or fall off plants. They also excrete honeydew, so leaves may be sticky or covered with black sooty mold. The honeydew may also attract ants, which interfere with the activities of natural enemies that may control whiteflies and other pests.

    Solution: MaxKillx5 (Beauveria Bassiana), FarmJoy Plus (Lecanicillium lecanii), Entophage-Gen (9CFU 9*10(9).

    Botrytis Blight

    About: A fungal disease which attacks cankered stems and flowers. The fungus grows into a gray brown fuzz mycelium that causes the flower petals to turn brown and shrivel. The predisposing factors are cooler and moist weather conditions. This can be accelerated by weakened plant tissues. Stressed plants are highly susceptible to the disease pathogens.

    Damage: Infection usually begins spotted flower petals. Grayish brown fuzz grows on infected plant parts. Flowers shrivel and decay.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Downey Mildew

    About: A major disease of foliar of vegetables and herbs and is particular severe in tropical environment. The initial symptoms are found on the top surface of leaves and consist of small pale green to greasy looking angular or rectangular spots that are delimited by leaf vein. During moist weather the corresponding lower leaf surface is covered with downy, pale gray to purple fungal mycelium and spores.

    Damage: Purple angular spots with yellow edges forms on the veins on the upper leaf surface. Fluffy gray spores grow on the underside of infected leaves. Blackish to dark red spots may appear on infected plant stem in severe infestation. Leaves become brittle and drop off.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Fusarium

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Powdery Mildew

    About: This disease is caused by a fungus that attacks the plant and forms a white powdery spore on new tender growth then spreads out into other plant parts. The pathogen is usually favoured by warm, dry days and cooler, damp nights. The new leaves may become curled or twisted and the shoots may look badly deformed. In some varieties, the upper surface of the leaf may appear normal but the underside has extensive fungus growth.

    Damage: Starts as small white or gray powdery spots on leaves or new growth. Leaves covered with white powdery mold, occurs in hot dry conditions.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Pythium

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off.” Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis),

    Rhizoctonia

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)

    Sclerotinia

    About: Damping-off frequently attacks young seedlings of almost all kinds of vegetables and herbs. Just after seedlings have emerged from the soil, they are easily killed by fungus organisms likely to be present vegetable field. Seedlings that die or fall over are said to “damp-off”. Seedlings may also die before emergence, referred to as pre-emergence damping-off. The pathogen has increase in importance in years.

    Damage: Seedling fails to appear or collapse at soil level. Soft brownish water rots.

    Solution: Foundation-X15 (Trichoderma koningiopsis)